OPTICS MODULE
Module program director: Prof. Péter Richter 
  1. Laser physics
  2. Foundations of the quantum electronics
  3. An introduction to quantum optics
  4. Interactions of electromagnetic radiation and matter
  5. Non-linear optics
  6. Optical components and instruments
  7. Optical methods of measurement
  8. Holography
  9. Design of optical systems
  10. Optical materials and technologies
  11. Optical data transmission
  12. Optical signal analysis
  13. Optical data storage
  14. Interference
  15. Crystal physics - optical materials
  16. Science of colour
  17. Spectroscopy and material structure
  18. Photonic devices II.
  19. Photographic techniques
  20. Mechatronics
  21. Optical measurements
  22. Optics Seminar  I.-IV.
  23. Laboratory practice
 


 

Laser physics
Credits: 5
Course director: Dr. Emõke Lôrincz
Abstract:
Light and matter interaction, spontaneous emission, absorption, induced emission. Radiationless transitions. Line broadening mechanisms, saturation. Excitation processes. Passive optical resonators. Mode structure, resonant frequency and diffraction loss. Propagation of Gaussian beams. The theory of laser action. Phenomenological discussion: rate equations. Continuous and impulse laser action. Semiclassical laser theory: linear approximation, non-linear theory. The quantum theory of lasers. Photon statistics and linewidth. Types of lasers: solid state lasers, gas lasers, dye and chemical lasers, semiconductor lasers, free electron laser. The properties of laser beams: monochromaticity, coherence, collimation, brightness. Application of lasers, laser market.

Foundations of Quantum electronics
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. Imre Péczeli
Abstract:
Description of the properties of optical materials. Microscopic description of optical materials. Phenomena of two level atomic systems. Polarization, dielectric susceptibility, refraction coefficient, absorption, emission. The phenomenon of saturation. Collisions and relaxation. Homogeneous and inhomogenous line-broadenings. Interaction of the tree-level system with electromagnetic field. Two-photon step transition. Two-photon resonanceless (Raman) transitions. Amplification without inversion.
Distortions of line shape. Laser spectroscopy. Coherent transient phenomena. Two-level atom in strong electromagnetic field. Optical Bloch vector and slowly changing amplitude approximation. Decay of free induction . Photon echo. Dicke's super radiation. Two photon relaxation. Microscopic description of the optical properties of matter, non-linear optics. Modulation of optical radiation.

An introduction to Quantumoptics
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. Péter Kálmán
Abstract:
The preliminaries of the quantized description of electromagnetic radiation. The concept of photon in the old quantum theory. Quantummechanics of harmonic oscillators. Classical electromagnetic waves. Quantization of the radiation field. Standing waves. Quantization of single mode wave field. Quantum-fluctuations. Multi-mode fields. Zero point energy, vacuum fluctuations. Mode occupation number. Photons.
Absorption and emission of radiation. The xE and the pA  interaction operators. Gauge transformations. Perturbation calculations. Gauge independent transition amplitudes. The Rabi-model. The concept of classical and quantum coherence. Quantum-coherence functions. Coherent states. Phase and superposition. Single mode coherent states. Coherent states as minimal uncertainty states. The generator of the coherent state. The relation of the semiclassical radiation theory and the quantum electrodynamics.

Interactions of electromagnetic radiation and matter
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. Péter Kálmán
Abstract:
Electrodynamics and canonical quantization in Coulomb gauge. Perturbative calculation of the transition amplitudes. Transition probability. Summary of the interaction processes between photons and atoms: photon emission, absorption and scattering, multi-photon processes, radiational corrections, interaction with photon exchange. The applicability of quantum electrodynamics (outlook).

Non-linear optics
Credits: 5
Course director: Zsolt Papp
Abstract:
Physical properties of anisotropic materials. Dielectric tensors. The basics of crystal optics. Fresnel's heat equation. Polarization properties. Crystal symmetries, optical axes. Linear electro-optical phenomenon. Crystals, operational characteristics and application of optical devices. Second order electro-optical phenomena. Kerr-effect. Second order magneto-optical phenomena. The basic laws of the non-linear behaviour of optical systems. Noise in non-linear systems. Maxwell-Bloch equation. Fokker-Planck equation. Generation of higher harmonics. Non-linear materials. Velocity fitting. Optical mixing. Parametric amplification. Elements of the non-linear laser spectroscopy. "Lamb-dip". Multi photon processes. Basics of phase conjugation. Generation and propagation of ultra short impulses. Effect of dispersion. Femtosecond techniques. Optical solitons. Amplification.

Optical components and instruments
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. György Ábrahám
Abstract:
Classification of optical components. Lenses, mirrors, prisms,  gratings. Colour filters (glass, dielectric). Polarizators. Optical fibres (light cables, image transmitters). Light sources, detectors, objectives, oculars. Telescopes, astronomical instruments, microscopes, monochromators, spectrometers. Cameras, video cameras, movie cameras. Projectors. Video and computer projectors. Geodesic instruments, telemeters. Optical velocity and acceleration meters. Interferometers. Three dimensional detections, Moiré techniques. Stereo image techniques. Laser optics, laser scanners, laser printers, faxes, xerox equipments.
 

Optical methods of measurement
Credits: 4
Course director: János Kornis
Abstract:
Measurement properties of optical data- and signal transfer. Components of optical measurement systems, light sources, detectors, storage materials. Measurement methods of the optical characteristics of components. Basic systems. Colorimetry. Spectroscopy. Laser interferometry (angle-, length-, parallelity measurement). Heterodyne and phase shift interferometry; holographic- and speckle interferometry (deformation, vibration, distribution of the refraction coefficient, shape measurement). Optical data processing. Photo elasticity. Optical fibres sensors. Interdisciplinary methods of measurement .
 

Holography
Credits: 3
Course director: Dr. Zoltán Füzessy
Abstract:
Holographic imaging. Wave front reconstructions. Properties of the reconstructed image. Hologram types. Optical systems and light sources. Storage materials. Practical holography. Applications: vision-hologram, holograms in security techniques, holographic optical elements, four-wave mixing, applications in computerizing and measurements.
 

Design of optical systems
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. Gábor Szarvas
Abstract:
Beam propagating through thin lens. Photometry, propagation of light energy in optical systems. Mirrors, prisms. Exact beam tracking. Beam tracking techniques. Aberrations. Correction of aberrations. Image evaluation. Computerized optical design, optimization. Optical CAD/CAM systems. Propagation of Gaussian beams. Modulation and scanning. Spectrometers. Computerized design of optical film systems. Photo detectors. Design of optical wave guide. Design of integrated optical and light guide fibre systems.
 

Optical materials and technologies
Credits: 5
Course director: Dr. László Kocsányi
Abstract:
Light and matter interaction. Summary of optical units and their characteristics. Modification of the optical properties of optical materials and elements. Surface formation. Modification of reflection and transmission properties with layer structures.
Production and tools for optical components. Production technological issues. Production procedures of glass- and crystal elements. Production of plastic optical elements. Special technologies. Quality control. Production of optical layer structures. Integrated optical devices and their technologies.
 

Optical data transmission
Credits: 3
Course director: Zsolt Papp
Abstract:
The development of optical telecommunication systems, their components and structure. Basic concepts: attenuation, dispersion, numerical aperture. Solution of the Maxwell equation in media with variable dielectric constant. Light propagation in (single mode) fibres with step distributed refraction coefficient. Light propagation in (multi-mode) fibres graded index.
Optical transmission property of light guide fibres. The basic elements of light guide connections. Design of light guide connections and their components. Light guiding technology in system management. Measurement methods of light guiding systems and their components.
 

Optical signal analysis
Credits: 3
Course director: Dr. László Jakab
Abstract:
Colour image processing. Pattern recognition. Optical correlators. Opto-electronical associative memories. Optical modelling of operations. Basic operations (Fourier transformation, correlation, matrix algebra). Spectral analysis of continuous functions. Time-frequency analysis. Discrete operations. Acousto-optical processors. AO components and characteristics. Powerspectrum analysators and correlators. Processor implementation. Optical wave guides. Non-linear optical wave guides. Optical transformations.
Geometrical transformations. Linear, invariant transformations. Non-linear transformations. Optical linear algebra. Applications.
 

Optical data storage
Credits: 2
Course director: Dr. Gábor Szarvas
Abstract:
Methods, types and possibilities of optical data storage (photograph, hologram, optical disc etc.). Reading of optical disc systems. Physical principles. Mathematical model. Signal-to-noise ratio. Optical error signal formation. Optical reading systems. The vector theory of diffraction (schematic description for a more exact explanation of optical disc systems). Drivers, controls, actuators in optical disc systems. The copying of optical discs. Coding. Re-writable optical disc systems. Analysis of the predicted directions of development.
 

Interference
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. Gábor Szarvas
Abstract:
The concept of interference, generalization of the concept for higher order phenomena. The concept of coherence. Wiener-Khincsin theorem.
The three types of light sources: thermal, laser, parametric. The two classes of interferometers: division of phase front, division of amplitude. Interferometry and spectroscopy, Michelson-Morley experiment and its continuation, the canonization of the velocity of light,
the new definition of meter. Stellar interferometer, intensity correlation, new stellar interferometer. Doppler anemometers, optical distance measurements in geodesy. Interference of electron radiation: the basic phenomenon, the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Interference of neutron radiation: Young interference with neutrons, gravity, acceleration, magnetic field, gyration of spinors, how did they miss Schrödinger's cat. Interference of atomic radiation. The EPR paradox. Bell's experiments.
 

Crystal physics - optical materials
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. László Jakab
Abstract:
Material characteristics determining the formation of crystal structure. Phase transition. Symmetries. Characteristical crystal structures. The description of crystals, determination of lattice structure with diffraction methods. Lattice interference. X-ray radiation, electrons, scattering of neutrons. Optical properties of crystals, their relationship to symmetry properties, isotrope, uniaxial, biaxial materials, polarization effects. Wavelength-, density- and temperature dependence of the refraction coefficient. Non-linear properties. Laser crystals. Optical transmission, crystal spectroscopy. Band structure, absorption edge. Multi-photon absorption. Production and treatment of optical crystals. Growing of crystals, doping, orientation, cutting, polishing. Characteristic crystal defects of real crystals and their measurement methods. Basic characterization of crystals with physical and chemical methods. Reasons of absorption in the transmission range, formation of colour centres.
 

Science of colour
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. Klára Wenczel
Abstract:
The definition of colours. Basic photometrical concepts. Light sources, colour filters. Substractive and additive colour mixing.
The structure, and the action of human eye. Brightness and colour adaptation. Characteristics of colours. Metameria, whiteness, complementary colours, ideal colours. The basics of colorimetry. The CIE, the Munsell, the COLOROID, the TPT and other colour systems. Colorimeters. Colour reproduction. Possibilities of colour imaging: colour photography, colour monitors, paints, printing procedures.
 

Spectroscopy and material structure
Credits: 2
Course director: Dr. Péter Richter
Abstract:
The electromagnetic spectrum, light and matter interaction. The basics of group theory. Electron transitions, selection rules. Technical implementations, light sources, monochromators, detectors. Rotational and vibrational transitions, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Fourier transformation techniques: FTIR, FT- Raman. Excation of inner shells: UPS, XPS, ESCA. Auger spectroscopy. Application of synchrotron radiation. Excitation in solids: dielectric function. (Kramers-Kronig analysis), metals, semiconductors, insulators. Special techniques: ellipsometry, photo- and electro-luminescency. Spectroscopy with charged particles: EELS, HREELS, positron annihilation, tunnel spectroscopy.
 

Photonical devices II.
Credits: 2
Course director: Dr. Imre Mojzes
Abstract:
Introduction. Integrated optics: structure formation, passive elements, active elements, methods of measurement. Semiconductor laser theory: single mode lasers, coupled systems, laser series, the most important properties of available laser diodes. Wave guides: quartz, guides of long wavelengths, polymers, fluorides, systems with non circular cross-section. Light matter interaction, summary, outlook.
 

Photographic techniques
Credits: 2
Course director: Ákos Antal
Abstract:
The subject of photography, its place in optics, in technological practice and in arts. Classification of image recording devices. The construction and the main parts of a camera. Lock mechanisms, objectives, types of viewfinders, engineering cameras. Possibilities of perspective correction. Structure of the grey scale and colour recording materials, their selection, and the developing techniques. Determining the correct exposition. Photometers, photometrical methods. Lighting in photometry. Sensitometry. Image editing techniques, compositions.
 

Mechatronics
Credits: 2
Course director: Dr. Attila Halmai
Abstract:
The concept and characteristics of mechatronics. Detectors: position and angular detectors, detectors of mechanical tension, velocity and acceleration detectors, force and pressure, light and heat sensors. Interfaces. Actuators: electronic, electromagnetic, piezo-electronic, magnetostrictive, thermal, memory alloy, pneumatic, hydraulic and electrochemical actuators. The driving of actuators. Microelectronics in mechatronics. Internal construction of microcomputers. The construction of the CPU: 8 and 16 bit microprocessors. Input and output facilities, interface devices. A/D and D/A converters.
 

Optical measurements
Credits: 6
Course director: Dr. Imre Péczeli
Abstract:
Basic measurement in geometrical optics (focal length, radius of curvature, plane-parallelity measurement with autocollimator). Measurement of waviness of large planar object with autocollimator. Measurement of optical transfer function.  Measurement of refraction coefficient, and refractive angle of prisms. Measurement of the refraction coefficient of fluids and solids. Microscopes. Refraction coefficient measurement with Rayleigh interferometer. Measurement of a component of velocity of a moving object with differential laser Doppler anemometer. Application of the single coordinate He-Ne laser distance-meter, and the determination of its measurement characteristics. Optical excitation of upper harmonics with Q switched YAG laser. Laser diode characteristics and beam profile measurement
 

Optics Seminar  I.-IV.
Credits: 4 x 2
Course director: Dr. Péter Richter
 

Laboratory practice
Credits: 10
Course director: Dr. Emôke Lôrincz