__Neutron physics__** Credits**: 3

Neutron properties. Methods for measuring physical properties of neutrons. Neutron sources: radioisotopes, accelerators and nuclear reactors. Special reactors (fast and pulsed reactors). Production of cold neutrons. Detecting neutrons: ionization and proportional chambers, scintillation and semiconductor detectors. Neutron telescopes, nuclear physical emulsion. Methods for measuring the neutron flux and its application for determining some reactor parameters (e.g. diffusion and retardation length, etc.) Neutron dosiometry. Neutron spectroscopy. Slow, epithermal and fast neutrons. Crystal spectrometers, time of flight spectrometers. Resonance absorption, the distribution of difference of levels and level spins, neutron width, radiation width, intensity function. Spectroscopy of fast neutrons, measurement of time at the order of nanosecundum. Selected chapters of the theory of nuclear reactions connected with neutrons. Nuclear reactions with neutron emission. Nuclear reactions caused by neutrons: (n, charged particle), (n, gamma radiation) reactions. Interaction of slow neutrons and condensed matter: Coherent and incoherent scattering, magnetic scattering. Neutron diffraction, neutron diffractional instruments. Application of neutron spin-echo method. Neutron polarization. Neutron optics. Neutron mirrors and neutron conducting pipes. Polarized neutrons, cold neutrons. Neutron gas. The application of neutron physics: activation analysis, isotope production with reactors, neutron radiography, chemical, geological and astrophysical applications.

__Physics of neutron gas and gamma radiation I.__** Credits:** 4

Interaction of ionization radiation with matter, the attenuation during transmission (absorption, scattering, radiation damping coefficient and its dependence on atomic charge and energy). The main properties of gamma, X-ray and neutron radiation. The interaction of gamma and neutron radiation with matter and the attenuation of radiation during the transmission. Nuclear reactions. The energy dependence of the cross-section of neutron nuclear reactions. Physics of neutron gas: neutron density, neutron flux, current density, neutron fluent, cross-section, mean free path of neutrons, reaction density, neutron spectrum. Theory of thermalization: the theoretical background of neutron deceleration. Neutron scattering, laws of central elastic collision, energy transfer in collision. The typical quantities of moderation. The lethargy. Moderation in infinite non-absorbing medium, deceleration in hydrogen. Fermi's age theory. Decelerating properties of moderators

__Reactor physics I.__**Credits: **8**Course director: **Dr. Zoltán Szatmáry*Abstract:*

The course starts with a short summary (cross-section, types of nuclear
reactions, scattering kernel function). Neutron flux and neutron current.
The differential and integral form of transport equation. One-group diffusion
theory (material- and geometric-curvaturical parameters, criticality).
Point kinetic equation, reactor runaway. The asymptotic moderating equation.
Placzek transient. Resonance absorption in homo- and heterogeneous media,
resonance integral. Doppler effect. Group constants. Few-group diffusion
theory. Reflector saving in one- and two-group approximation. Spatial distribution
of neutron flux in reactors. Thermal factors. The process of burnout. Reactor
poisons. Xenon poisoning, xenon oscillations. Proliferate of transuranic
elements. Change of reactor properties during the burnout.

__Reactor physics II.__**Credits: **8**Course director: **Dr. Zoltán Szatmáry*Abstract:*

The course starts with a short summary (cross-section, types of nuclear
reactions, scattering kernel function). Neutron flux and neutron current.
Integral and differential forms of transport equation. The diffusion equation
as a simplified form of transport equation. Adjoin equations, neutron valuable/preciousness.
Perturbation theory. One-group diffusion theory (material- and geometric-curvaturical
parameters, criticality). Point kinetic equation. Reactor runaway. Asymptotic
moderation. Placzek transient. Resonance absorption in homo- and heterogeneous
media, resonance integral. Doppler effect. Calculation of group constants.
Few-group diffusion theory. Many-group moderation theory. Fermi's age theory.
Effective late neutron fraction. Solving diffusion equation with finite
difference approximation. Reflector sparing in one and two group approximation.
The spatial distribution of neutron flux in the reactor. Temperature factors.
Methods of measurement for reactivity. Macro and micro distribution. measurement
of spectral indexes. The process of burnout. Reactor poisons. Xenon poisoning,
xenon oscillations. Proliferate of transuranic elements. Changes of reactor
properties during the burnout. Model calculation for energetic reactors.
Optimization the operation of reactors.

__Reactor physical calculations__**Credits: **4**Course director: **Dr. Sándor Fehér*Abstract:*

The role and the properties of reactor physical calculations, databases,
libraries, parametrisation. Practical problems appearing in reactor physical
design and operation: criticality determination, calculation of neutron
flux and power density distribution. Reactivity and controlling analyses.
Burnout examination. The block diagram and components of reactor physical
calculations. Programs generating cross sections, methods for the calculation
of resonance integral. Elementary cell calculation. Multi-group diffusion
codes. Programs building on transport calculation methods. The applications
of the Monte-Carlo method. Problems: diffusion criticality calculation,
asymptotic burnout calculation, campaign calculation for reactors.

__The large-scale experimental instruments of particle-
and nuclear physics__**Credits: **5*Course director:** Dr. Csaba Sükösd*
*Abstract:*

Special kind of neutron sources. Pulsed, great-fluxed, spallation neutron
sources. Production of cold neutrons, neutron beams an neutron mirrors.
Method of measurement for neutrons: neutron spectrometers, neutron diffraction,
spin-echo technics. Producing particle beams: ion sources and their properties
(douplasmatron, ECR, stripper). Accelerators: linear and cyclic accelerators,
phase- and transverse oscillations. Intensity, defocusing and resonance.
Electro-syncrotron, storage rings, colliding beams. Beam transport, Liouville-theorem,
phase space. Producing polarized beams. Secondary beams: Synchrotron

radiation, gamma beam, radioactive ionic beams, ``meson factories''.
Traditional and special targets: metal films, gas target, JET target. Active
targets. Liquid hydrogen and helium target. Target of spallation neutrons.
Detectors: Scintillation and Tcherenkov detectors. Neutron detectors. Proportional
and drift chambers. Particle beam detectors, calorimeters, bubble chambers,
emulsion, spark chambers. Stream detectors. Temporary radiation detectors.
System of detectors. Magnetic spectrometer, steady target spectrometers
colliding beam spectrometers. Some questions about data processing: On
line, off line analysis. Handling of large amount of data. Calibration,
monitoring and checking during operation.

__Monte-Carlo methods__**Credits:** 4**Course director: **Dr. Sándor Fehér*Abstract:*

Generating uniform distributions. Multiplicative, congruence type and
other algorithms. Periodic behaviour of random number series and the length
of the aperiodic interval. Statistical tests for random numbers, fitting
analysis and independence test, chi-square and Kolmogorov test. Empirical
tests for uniformly distributed random numbers. Special non-uniform distributions
and their generation (normal, exponential, gamma, beta and Poisson distributions).
Sampling of power-law distributions. Producing random vectors, special
methods for the spatial isotropic case. The principles of Monte-Carlo methods.
Monte-Carlo simulation of discrete and continual events with determined
probability. Procedures for increasing simulation speed. General algorithms
for sampling from an arbitrary distribution (inverse integral, rejection,
composition and table look-up method). Generalization of the rejection
method. Importance sampling. Methods for decreasing standard deviation.
Application of Monte-Carlo methods. Integration, solving linear system
of equations, interpolation of multi-value functions. Particle transport
simulation with Monte-Carlo method. Analog and non-analog replay. Monte-Carlo
parameters attached to particles. The main components of the particle transport
program. Modelling the mean free path in homogeneous, inhomogeneous and
partly homogeneous medium. Modelling Compton-scattering with Monte-Carlo
methods (Carlson, Kahn, Koblinger). Reduction of standard deviation in
modelling the particle transport. The statistical weight, ``Russian roulette'',
the method of splitting trajectories. Queuing and mass-service models,
simulation of complicated systems. Calculation of the multi-dimensional
Gauss distribution.

__Processing of experimental data I.__**Credits: **3**Course director: **Dr. Zoltán Szatmáry*Abstract:*

This course gives a presentation about the practical application of
the probability theory and mathematical statistics and the solution of
some of the experimental data analysis problems appearing in everyday laboratory
work. Parameter estimation; maximum likelihood method, fundamentals of
least square method. Biased and unbiased estimation, distortion. The error
of estimated parameters, estimation of covariance matrix. Statistical tests
for searching spilling points, the error of first and second kind. Statistical
tests for determining the goodness of fitting: the point rejection method,
error of first and second kind. Examples of evaluation of certain measurements.
RFIT program and its application.

__Processing of experimental data II.__**Credits: **2**Course director: **Dr. Zoltán Szatmáry*Abstract:*

This course is a presentation of practical applications of the previously
studied mathematical statistical knowledge and in part a practical supplement
of it. The subject is open in a sense that topics suggested by students
are analysed too. Fixed topics: Fundamental concepts (date types,
scales, experimental data model, measurement error, time rows, stochastic
processes). Preprocessing (sampling, interpolation, filtering). Types and
planing of convolutional filters, (Frequency filters, DFT, Wiener filters,
prediction and deconvolution). Recursive filters (z- transformed, Kalman-filter,
ARMAX-model). Analysis of multi-valued functions (Main component analysis,
factor analysis, discrimant analysis). Cluster analysis. Practical fitting
problems. Robust estimation (fitting based on the most frequent value).

__Thermal theory__**Credits**: 5**Course director: **Dr. Tamás Jászay*Abstract:*

Short summary of the concepts and fundamental laws of thermodynamics.
Thermal and calorimetric state of equation. State transition and state
diagram of real gases (vapours). Basic types of cycles (work, cooler, heat
pump and coupled one). Substituting cycles of machines working with gas
medium. Analysis of their efficiency. Steam cycles and possibilities of
increasing their efficiency. Properties of steam cycles in nuclear power
plants. Entropy analysis of the transition of state and cycles. Thermodynamic
bases of climate technology. Fundamental forms of heat propagation: conduction,
convection, radiation. Steady and time-dependent heat conduction in simple
bodies, special emphasize is put on the case of internal heated source.
Heat transmission in two-phase flow (boiling, condensation). Heat transmission.
Sizing of heat transmission instruments. Efficiency of heat transmitter.
Simple examples of heat radiation. Radiation of gases. The basic cases
of parallel mass and heat transport.

__Fluid mechanics__**Credits: **4**Course director:** Dr. József Rohács*Abstract:*

Summary of theorems of hydro- and thermodynamics which are necessary
for dealing with fluid machines. Operation and classification of fluid
machines. The operation and fundamental equations of centrifugal fluid
machines. Centrifugal compressors, ventilators and rotary pumps. Basic
operation of axial compressors and ventilators. Determination of pressure
and temperature which are appearing in stages, increased, losses, efficiency.
Connecting the stages to each other. Operation of rotary pumps, their velocity
triangles. Running of axial turbines, triangles, losses, power. Calculation
of the stages of turbines. Steam and gas based turbines. Running of axial
hydro-electric generators, their working properties. Velocities, triangles,
operation, application of centrifugal gas-functioned turbines. Operation
of water turbines, character graph. Some elementary measuring technics
of fluid-flow machines (velocity, pressure, volume, temperature, etc.)

__Thermo- and hydrodynamic laboratory__**Credits: **4**Course director: **Lajos Kisdeák*Abstract:*

Thermo-technical measurements: measuring the temperature of flowing
gases, experimental recording of tension graph of the water vapour, studying
the transition of state, experimental determination of the kappa exponent
for air, examination of the heat radiation of a plain flat, measuring free
convection around a horizontal tube. Fliud-flow technical measurements:
tools for determining pressure and volume, experimental recording of the
pipe friction factor, studying the straight stream-guider lattice, measuring
lifting and resistivity force on a body placed in stream. Investigation
of thermo- and fluid-flow technical machines: measuring the properties
of freezers, examination of water beam pump, measuring centrifugal rotary
pump and ventilator, compressor, recording of the characterism of centrifugal
compressors, investigating the launching and operational properties of
gas turbine, recording of external characterism of internal combustion
engines. Pressure indication in the cylinder space.

__Material science and technology__**Credits: **4**Course director: **Dr.** **István Artinger*Abstract:*

Concept of material technology, classification of technologies. Classification
of materials, their properties. The basis of mechanical material research.
Methods and index numbers. Lattice structure of metals and alloys. Its
equilibrium state. State graphs. The real structure of metals. Lattice
impurities and their influence. The mechanism of plastic deformation. Phase
transitions. Diffusion transition. Transition of Martin-steel kind. Secessional
stiffing. Effect of radiation. Renewal, recrystalisation. The phenomena
and research methods of fracture, failing, creeping, flow. The fundamental
concepts of electro-chemical corrosion, the most important research methods.
Methods of producing materials and the influence of the technology on the
properties. Structural and tools materials and factors determining their
properties. Special materials. The structural materials of nuclear technics.
The effect of the cast structures and pollution. Cast alloys. Fe-based
light and non-ferrous metal alloys. Weldable steels and alloys. Methods
of welding. Formable steels, aluminium alloys and non-ferrous metals. Plastic
deformation technologies. Surface treatment methods. Future structural
materials.

__Machine elements, CAD, CAM__**Credits: **5**Course director: **Dr. Sándor Tóth*Abstract:*

General questions about the constructional design (concept, requirement
note, looking for solution sketches and evaluation, licensing of design,
patenting, documentation, controlling v. operation, destruction, recycling).
Basic problems in machine constructing, the used geometrical, functional
and calculation methods, materials, material laws, checking of functional
conditions, reaching of sufficient lifetime, economical production and
operation. Bindings working with force, form and material (screw binding,
moment binding, welded bindings). Springs, system of springs. Pressurized
vessels and mountings. The fundamental task of sizing in the framework
of the theory of strength of materials (static and dynamic strain, stability
questions, thermal strain, special material laws, creeping and tiring,
failure phenomenon). Elements of bending systems (bearings, shafts, clutches,
power transport by force and form). During the evolving of topics there
will be introduced both the simple models for calculation and the more
accurate computerized methods, the possibilities of applying CAD at the
stage of making the documentation (drawing in 2 dimension, body modelling,
computerized analysis, simulation of movement). CAM principal concepts.

__Engineering mechanics__*Credits: 5***Course director:** Dr. Bela Sályi*Abstract:*

Kinematics and kinetics. The zero, first, and second order inertia
moment. Equation of motion, trajectory. The velocity, the state of velocity
for a rigid body, finite and infinitesimal type of movement. The acceleration,
the state of acceleration for a rigid body. The concept of mass point.
The projection of moving, circular moving and harmonic oscillation. Moving
with constant acceleration. The degrees of freedom for moving, determining
the equation of motion. The properties of moving taking into account the
co-ordinate systems (relative movement). Newton equations, the role of
mass. Lagrange type equation of motion (for systems with one and n degrees
of freedom) a) first kind b) second kind. The system of theorems of kinetics:
momentum theorem, angular momentum theorem, power, kinetic energy, work
and work theorem. Collisions: central and excentral, collision of rigid
body rotating at a fixed axis. The theory of oscillations as a part of
the kinetics. The statics as a limit of kinetics. The science of the strength
of materials (statics of elastic bodies). Its task and topic. The concept
of strain, strains of rods (straight and curved). The strained states of
straight rods: a) tension (pressure) b) bending c) torsion d) shearing.
Differential equation for an elastic fibre. Complex strain. Work of
the deformation. Bending of in-plane-curved rods. State of stress and deformation.
Strength type of sizing. Uncertain structures.

__Control engineering__**Credits: **4**Course director: **Dr. Béla Szilágyi*Abstract:*

Concepts, conditioning and controlling. Mathematical description of
dynamical system. The differential equation and its methods for solving.
Space of states, phase space. Equilibrium position of controlling. Stability.
System typical functions. Design methods of continual and discrete system.
Serial compensation, state feedback, noise compensation, cascade controlling.

__Nuclear electronics__**Credits:** 4**Course director: **Dr. Barna Szepessy*Abstract:*

Fundamentals of the nuclear electronics, pre-amplifiers from the conventional
resistive-feedback to the modern optical-feedback ones. Spectroscopic amplifiers
their types and elements: CR-RC-RC delay-liner, (unipolar, bipolar) gated
integrator etc. Signal forming methods, types which are the most suitable
for application, aspects of adjusting their parameters. Timing contra Pulse
Height Analysis (fast-slow system selection). Pulse Shape Discrimination
(PSD). Linear gates. Pile-up-rejector (PUR). Baseline-Restorer (BLR). Loss-free
counting system (LFC). Counting losses (Classical Pulse Generator Method
CPGM; Virtual Pulse Generator Methode (VPGM)). Wilkinson-type and Successive
approximation ADC-s. Linearity errors. Reliability questions. Statistical
problems of data evaulation. Analysis and comparison of the above mentioned
circuits for the purpose of an economical measurement design. Multichanel
analisers (MCA). Noise-resolution (electronics- noise-reduction)

__Fundamentals of reactor physics and technics__**Credits: **4**Course director: **Dr. Gyula Csom*Abstract:*

Nuclear physical background of reactors (short summary). Basics of
neutron physics, neutron gas properties, diffusion theory. Theoretical
basis of neutron moderation, moderator properties. Reactor statics: multiplication
factor and its elements. The reactor physical conditions of reactor safety.
Reactor kinetics, reactor controlling. Fuel burn-out: change in the composition
of radioactive fuel, poisoning, determination of burn-out level. Thermo-technics
of reactors: power flux distribution, axial and radial distribution of
temperature, thermal limits. Reactor build-up. Fundamentals of the engineering
radiation protection.

__Reactor controlling and set-up__**Credits:** 3**Course director:** Dr. Ernô Petz*Abstract:*

The controlling properties of reactor. Measured parameters of reactors.
Chain measuring devices for neutrons. Chain measurement systems for determining
technological parameters. Controlling poles, interlopers, location indicators.
Operator helping computerized information system. Reactor controlling.
Safe-guarding systems. Analysis of safe-guarding systems.

__Nuclear safety__**Credits:** 3**Course director: **Dr. Ferenc Lévay*Abstract:*

The definition, fundamental questions and handling of nuclear safety.
Criticality safety. Physical basis of reactor safety. Principles of safety
sizing. Reactivity malfunctions. Theoretical basis of confidence. Deterministic
probability safety analysis. Results of risk studies. Safe-guarding systems.
Review of defence systems. The safety report. Peaceful and military utilization.
The ``Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty'' and its role.

__Theory of operation of nuclear reactors I.__**Credits:** 4**Course director:** Dr. Gyula Csom*Abstract:*

Distribution of power density in the active zone, its inequality factors
and temperature limits. Moderation, reactivity factors, reactor physical
fundamentals of nuclear safety. Reactivity controlling and compensation.
Xenon poisoning and its influence on reactor operation. Self-controlling
properties of nuclear reactors. Changing of radioactive composition during
the burning cycle. Problems at the end of the cycle, cycle extending. Possibilities
of failure of radioactive fuel units and their consequences in the operation.
Technological an operational questions about the reactor vessel check.
The manoeuvring abilities of reactors, the conditions and possibilities
for the changing loaded power operation. Extending the lifetime of energetic
reactors. The nuclear reactor as a radiation source. The activation of
the water in the prime circle, the pollution of apparatus in the prime
circle and its effect on reactor operation. Physical launch. Refuelling.
Checking and temporary storage of new and burnt fuel units. Reactor checking
during operation, noise diagnose. Special questions about the maintenance
of nuclear reactors. Malfunctions and types of accidents in nuclear reactors.
Students should take part in laboratory practice on prime circle simulators
(3-4 laboratory measurement).

__Nuclear energy systems__** Credits:** 3

Uranium and thorium resources. Uranium ore mining, processing and enrichment. Uranium conversation. Uranium enrichment, technologies of enrichment. Fuel unit production based on uranium and MOX, typicals of fuel units. Nuclear reactors, types of nuclear reactors, nuclear energy systems, temporary and final storage of burnt fuel, ways of storage. Reprocessing of fuel units and recicrulation of useful materials. Classification of radioactive waste and their, preparation, storage and final bury. Environmental effect of the different parts of nuclear energy system. International and domestic regularization and checking (safeguards). Economical questions about the usage of nuclear energy.

__Diagnosis of technical systems__**Credits: **3**Course director: **Dr. Gábor Pór*Abstract:*

Introduction to the diagnostically systems: method based on regular
checking of measured parameters, fluctuation diagnostic bases (spectrum,
auto-regression procedures): trends and trend monitoring methods, professional
systems, neuron networks, fundamentals of system with artificial intelligence.
Automated diagnostically systems: noise diagnostically systems in reactors
(system based on neutron noise), checking system for the origin and spreading
of defects in devices working under pressure, system detecting and localizing
loose parts, diagnostically systems for vibration, leakage detecting system,
system for the determination of remaining lifetime, diagnostically systems
(procedure) determining the system parameters, remote monitoring systems,
system measuring and registration the changing of material properties.

__Theory of operation of nuclear power plants__**Credits: **6*Course director: **Dr. Gyula Csom*
*Abstract:*

Two third of the topic in this course is equivalent with the ``Theory
of operation of nuclear reactors'' course. The remaining one third part
includes the following topics: The place of the nuclear power plants in
the electrical energy system. The consequences of economical load distribution
in the operation of nuclear plants. The operational specialities of steam
generator. The operational specialities of the saturated steam turbine.
The usual operational situations of a nuclear plant (launching, stopping,
power modification, steady running). Malfunctions and accidents in nuclear
plants. Economical calculation. The organization of plant controlling.
Laboratory practice with part and nuclear plant simulators and in the training
simulator at the nuclear power plant at Paks.

__Method of nuclear measurement__**Credits: **5**Course director: **Dr. Dénes Bódizs*Abstract:*

Interaction of radioactive radiation with matter. Types of detectors,
signal process and evaluation electronics, measuring gamma and neutron
radiation, XRF, Mössbauer spectroscopy, method of measurement for
low and high intensity of radiation, absolute activity measurement, errors
in measurement, practical application of different types of methods of
measurement. Laboratory practice: gas filled detectors, gamma spectroscopy
with scintillation and semiconductor detectors, XRF, Mössbauer spectroscopy
and coincidence techniques.

__Applications of radioactive radiation__**Credits: **3**Course director:** Dr. Nóra Vajda*Abstract:*

Radioisotopes, producing signed compounds. Application of radioactive
isotopes in the research of chemical mechanism and biochemistry (RIA).
Medical applications of radiation and isotopes (diagnosis and therapy).

__Nuclear material testing__**Credits: **5**Course director: **Dr. Ferenc Lévay*Abstract:*

Radiation and matter interaction, information content of radiation
image. Transmission methods. Scanning methods. Computerized tomophotography.
Emission methods. Fundamentals of testing nuclear materials. Measuring
problems with the safe-guard method. Method of measurement for radiated
fuel. Usage of excited nuclear reactions for material research. Practical
questions about the industrial material testing and its developing trends.

__Radioanalytics__**Credits: **6**Course director: **Dr. Nóra Vajda*Abstract:*

Isotopes in the nature with natural and artificial origin, nucleogensis,
the steps of the radiochemical analysis (exploration, chemical separation,
preparation of radioactive sources), the analysis of important radioisotopes.
Nuclear methods in element-analytics (activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence
analysis). Nuclear methods in structure research.

__Radiation effect chemistry__**Credits: **3**Course director **Dr. Földiák Gábor*Abstract:*

The temporary and permanent effect of radiation on physical properties
and its practical utilization (e.g. modifying the conductivity of gases
and solids, improvement of quality in semiconductors, producing light and
electric energy). Radiation effect chemical reactions of water and liquid
media. The role of physical parameters and pollution. Radiochemical decay
of organic compounds. Radioactive technologies especially in the plastic
industry (producing shrinking polymers, improvement of heat resistivity,
surface treatment technologies). Radiation resistivity of structured materials.
Radio-biological technologies

in agriculture, food and pharmaceutical industry (medical instruments)
and in production (sterilization). Radiation technological tools (gamma
radiators and electron accelerators) and technological dosimeters. The
course includes laboratory work with gamma radiators and electron accelerators
at the Hungarian Academy of Science Isotope Research Institute.

__Radiation protection II.__**Credits: **4**Course director: **Dr. Péter Zagyvay*Abstract:*

Dose concepts and units. The damaging impact of ionization radiation
in living organisms. Activities of native and international radiation protection
organizations and authorities. The current regulating system of radiation
protection. Occurrence and propagation of radioactive materials in the
environmental. The mechanism of incorporation. External and internal radiation
burden. Individual and collective doses at dangerous workplaces. Natural
and artificial burden for inhabitants. Protection against external radiation
and radioactive pollution. Sizing of shielding walls. Decontamination technologies.
Personal and local dosage measurement of external radiation burden. Measuring
the inner burden. Measuring the environmental burden. Measuring the radioactive
pollution of air, water and soil. Quality assurance conditions about the
measurement apparatus of the radiation protection.

__Radioactive waste__**Credits: **4**Course director: **Dr. Péter Zagyvay*Abstract:*

Concepts of radiation protection in connection with radioactive waste.
Groups of wastes. Characterization of wastes. Official provisions. Origin
of waste, its entry into nature and their environmental influence. Environmental
checking methods of nuclear waste. Storing and transporting radioactive
waste. Building and running nuclear stores. The physical and chemical technologies
of handling nuclear and radioactive waste. Radiation protection provisions
connected with waste handling. The role of natural analoges in the planing
of waste storage. Checking and analytical methods. Sampling methods. Specialities
and sensitivity of the measurement apparatus. Quality assurance in handling,
storage and characterization of nuclear waste.

__Environmental influence of nuclear power plants__**Credits: **3**Course director: **Dr. Péter Zagyvay*Abstract:*

The purpose of the environmental protection, basic concepts, main areas
and methods. The effect of energetic on air environmental. The originating
process of air polluting materials: emission coming from natural and human
activity, origin of pollutants in burning (sulphur- and nitrogen-dioxide,
flying ashes, etc.), methods for decreasing emission. The spreading of
pollutants: meteorological factor effecting on the propagation and dilution,
(wind-field, stability of atmosphere, precipitation) the idea and the calculation
methods of the additional chimney height, the fundamental model and its
completion for spreading (reflection, deposition, outwash, transition).
Evaluation of methods for air pollution: content diagrams, effect estimation,
chimney sizing, economical evaluation. Grouping of environmental risk,
the objective and subjective factors of its judgement.

__Pollution propagation in the environmental__**Credits: **3**Course director: **Dr. Péter Zagyvai*Abstract:*

Types of models describing gases and aerosols moving in the atmosphere.
Meteorological factors having influence on the propagation. Application
of models. Planing and implementation of monitoring measurements,
validation of models. Specialities of the radioactive air pollution. The
measurement of the radioactive air pollution. Spreading of inactive and
radioactive pollution in steady and moving surface water, ground water
and soil. Basic hydrological ideas connected with the stream of ground
water and surface water. The applied measuring and calculation method for
the validation of the propagation model. Entry of the radioactive pollutants
in living organism. Metabolic model of incorporation and exhaustion. The
normal and accidental radioactive emission of nuclear plants. Role of the
models in the planing and practise of guarding. Environmental monitoring
systems, remote measurement networks.

__Modern nuclear methods __**Credits: **3**Course director: **Dr Csaba Sükösd*Abstract:*

Radiation sources (accelerators, reactors). Steady and impulse operation.
The characterization of available beams. Special radiation beams (synchrotron
radiation, cold neutrons, spallation neutron sources). Modern detecting
technics, special detectors. New directions and methods in nuclear electronics
(multi-parametric event detecting, on-line pre-processing). Special
questions about data processing (event reconstruction, hypothesis analysis,
deconvolution). Current questions about the nuclear reactors. Nuclear
accidents. Waste storage and placement. Up-to-date questions about the
nuclear environmental protection. Propagation models, environmental monitoring.
Noise as an information medium. Noise diagnosis. (audio, thermal and neutron
noise). Nuclear imaging (radiography, transmission and emission type of
tomography).

__Nuclear technology laboratory I.__**Credits: **6**Course director: **Dr. Éva Zsolnay*Abstract:*

One term of laboratory practice consists 12 measurements, chosen from
the following topics regarding the students' submodules.

- Measuring neutron flux (macro and micro distribution, asimutal, radial and axial direction distributions)
- Spectral parameter measurement in reactor zone.
- Thermal neutron flux measurement using activation method.
- Reactivity measurement of neutron absorbers.
- Cavity-effect measurement.
- Measuring thermal diffusion length of neutrons.
- Measurement of late neutron parameters, uranium concentration determination.
- Measurement in subcritical systems, criticality experiment in the reactor.
- Measuring thermal neutron flux with the time of flying method.
- Determination of neutron dose by some neutron spectrum.
- Neutron activation analysis.
- Investigation of nuclear detector parameters.
- Study of different materials neutron and gamma radiation protection.
- Calibration of controller pole in a subcritical system.
- Feynman gamma measurement.
- Determination of U235 and U238 fraction in the frissure products of uranium.
- Three events of laboratory work with reactor simulators (investigation of reactivity factors, reactor runaway, examination of both primary and secondary cycle phenomena.)
- Prompt gamma activation analysis with cold neutrons. (MTA Isotope Inst.)
- Study of signal form discriminator. (BME Atomic Physics Department)
- Mössbauer-effect. (BME Atomic Physics Department)
- Field trip to institutes having special nuclear devices (ATOMKI research centre at Debrecen, Institute of Oncology, etc.)

**Credits: **10**Course director: **Dr. Éva Zsolnay*Abstract:*

Another term of laboratory practice consists 12 measurements, chosen
from the above topics regarding the students' submodules.

__Nuclear technology seminars I.-IV.__**Credits:** 4 X 2**Course director: **Dr. Csaba Sükösd*Abstract:*

In each term students get one or two topics for individual work and
presentation. The difficulties of subjects are steadily increasing. In
the first two terms the aim is to increase the lecturing skills, on the
other hand in the last two occasions the stress is put on the professional
content. During the four terms students are challenged by various kinds
of lecturing situation including the usage of blackboard/transparents and
lecturing in small/big audience hall.