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Nuclear technology module
Module program director professor Zoltán Szatmáry 

Neutron physics
Credits: 3
Course director: Dr. Csaba Sükösd
Abstract:
Neutron properties. Methods for measuring physical properties of neutrons. Neutron sources: radioisotopes, accelerators and nuclear reactors. Special reactors (fast and pulsed reactors). Production of cold neutrons. Detecting neutrons: ionization and proportional chambers, scintillation and semiconductor detectors. Neutron telescopes, nuclear physical emulsion. Methods for measuring the neutron flux and its application for determining some reactor parameters (e.g. diffusion and retardation length, etc.) Neutron dosiometry. Neutron spectroscopy. Slow, epithermal and fast neutrons. Crystal spectrometers, time of flight spectrometers. Resonance absorption, the distribution of difference of levels and level spins, neutron width, radiation width, intensity function. Spectroscopy of fast neutrons, measurement of time at the order of nanosecundum. Selected chapters of the theory of nuclear reactions connected with neutrons. Nuclear reactions with neutron emission. Nuclear reactions caused by neutrons: (n, charged particle), (n, gamma radiation) reactions. Interaction of slow neutrons and condensed matter: Coherent and incoherent scattering, magnetic scattering. Neutron diffraction, neutron diffractional instruments. Application of neutron spin-echo method. Neutron polarization. Neutron optics. Neutron mirrors and neutron conducting pipes. Polarized neutrons, cold neutrons. Neutron gas. The application of neutron physics: activation analysis, isotope production with reactors, neutron radiography, chemical, geological and astrophysical applications.

Physics of neutron gas and gamma radiation I.
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr Éva Zsolnay
Abstract:
Interaction of ionization radiation with matter, the attenuation during  transmission (absorption, scattering, radiation damping coefficient and its dependence on atomic charge and energy). The main properties of gamma, X-ray and neutron radiation. The interaction of gamma and  neutron radiation with matter and the attenuation of radiation during the transmission. Nuclear reactions. The energy dependence of the cross-section of neutron nuclear reactions. Physics of neutron gas: neutron density, neutron flux, current density, neutron fluent, cross-section, mean free path of neutrons, reaction density, neutron spectrum. Theory of thermalization: the theoretical background of neutron deceleration. Neutron scattering, laws of central elastic collision, energy transfer in collision. The typical quantities of moderation. The lethargy. Moderation in infinite non-absorbing medium, deceleration in hydrogen. Fermi's age theory. Decelerating properties of moderators

Reactor physics I.
Credits: 8
Course director: Dr. Zoltán Szatmáry
Abstract:
The course starts with a short summary (cross-section, types of nuclear reactions, scattering kernel function). Neutron flux and neutron current. The differential and integral form of transport equation. One-group diffusion theory (material- and geometric-curvaturical parameters, criticality). Point kinetic equation, reactor runaway. The asymptotic moderating equation. Placzek transient. Resonance absorption in homo- and heterogeneous media, resonance integral. Doppler effect. Group constants. Few-group diffusion theory. Reflector saving in one- and two-group approximation. Spatial distribution of neutron flux in reactors. Thermal factors. The process of burnout. Reactor poisons. Xenon poisoning, xenon oscillations. Proliferate of transuranic elements. Change of reactor properties during the burnout.

Reactor physics II.
Credits: 8
Course director: Dr. Zoltán Szatmáry
Abstract:
The course starts with a short summary (cross-section, types of nuclear reactions, scattering kernel function). Neutron flux and neutron current. Integral and differential forms of transport equation. The diffusion equation as a simplified form of transport equation. Adjoin equations, neutron valuable/preciousness. Perturbation theory. One-group diffusion theory (material- and geometric-curvaturical parameters, criticality). Point kinetic equation. Reactor runaway. Asymptotic moderation. Placzek transient. Resonance absorption in homo- and heterogeneous media, resonance integral. Doppler effect. Calculation of group constants. Few-group diffusion theory. Many-group moderation theory. Fermi's age theory. Effective late neutron fraction. Solving diffusion equation with finite difference approximation. Reflector sparing in one and two group approximation. The spatial distribution of neutron flux in the reactor. Temperature factors. Methods of measurement for reactivity. Macro and micro distribution. measurement of spectral indexes. The process of burnout. Reactor poisons. Xenon poisoning, xenon oscillations. Proliferate of transuranic elements. Changes of reactor properties during the burnout. Model calculation for energetic reactors. Optimization the operation of reactors.

Reactor physical calculations
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. Sándor Fehér
Abstract:
The role and the properties of reactor physical calculations, databases, libraries, parametrisation. Practical problems appearing in reactor physical design and operation: criticality determination, calculation of neutron flux and power density distribution. Reactivity and controlling analyses. Burnout examination. The block diagram and components of reactor physical calculations. Programs generating cross sections, methods for the calculation of resonance integral. Elementary cell calculation. Multi-group diffusion codes. Programs building on transport calculation methods. The applications of the Monte-Carlo method. Problems: diffusion criticality calculation, asymptotic burnout calculation, campaign calculation for reactors.

The large-scale experimental instruments of particle- and nuclear physics
Credits: 5
Course director: Dr. Csaba Sükösd
Abstract:
Special kind of neutron sources. Pulsed, great-fluxed, spallation neutron sources. Production of cold neutrons, neutron beams an neutron mirrors. Method of measurement for neutrons: neutron spectrometers, neutron diffraction, spin-echo technics. Producing particle beams: ion sources and their properties (douplasmatron, ECR, stripper). Accelerators: linear and cyclic accelerators, phase- and transverse oscillations. Intensity, defocusing and resonance. Electro-syncrotron, storage rings, colliding beams. Beam transport, Liouville-theorem, phase space. Producing polarized beams. Secondary beams: Synchrotron
radiation, gamma beam, radioactive ionic beams, ``meson factories''. Traditional and special targets: metal films, gas target, JET target. Active targets. Liquid hydrogen and helium target. Target of spallation neutrons. Detectors: Scintillation and Tcherenkov detectors. Neutron detectors. Proportional and drift chambers. Particle beam detectors, calorimeters, bubble chambers, emulsion, spark chambers. Stream detectors. Temporary radiation detectors. System of detectors. Magnetic spectrometer, steady target spectrometers colliding beam spectrometers. Some questions about data processing: On line, off line analysis. Handling of large amount of data. Calibration, monitoring and checking during operation.

Monte-Carlo methods
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. Sándor Fehér
Abstract:
Generating uniform distributions. Multiplicative, congruence type and other algorithms. Periodic behaviour of random number series and the length of the aperiodic interval. Statistical tests for random numbers, fitting analysis and independence test, chi-square and Kolmogorov test. Empirical tests for uniformly distributed random numbers. Special non-uniform distributions and their generation (normal, exponential, gamma, beta and Poisson distributions). Sampling of power-law distributions. Producing random vectors, special methods for the spatial isotropic case. The principles of Monte-Carlo methods. Monte-Carlo simulation of discrete and continual events with determined probability. Procedures for increasing simulation speed. General algorithms for sampling from an arbitrary distribution (inverse integral, rejection, composition and table look-up method). Generalization of the rejection method. Importance sampling. Methods for decreasing standard deviation. Application of Monte-Carlo methods. Integration, solving linear system of equations, interpolation of multi-value functions. Particle transport simulation with Monte-Carlo method. Analog and non-analog replay. Monte-Carlo parameters attached to particles. The main components of the particle transport program. Modelling the mean free path in homogeneous, inhomogeneous and partly homogeneous medium. Modelling Compton-scattering with Monte-Carlo methods (Carlson, Kahn, Koblinger). Reduction of standard deviation in modelling the particle transport. The statistical weight, ``Russian roulette'', the method of splitting trajectories. Queuing and mass-service models, simulation of complicated systems. Calculation of the multi-dimensional Gauss distribution.

Processing of experimental data I.
Credits: 3
Course director: Dr. Zoltán Szatmáry
Abstract:
This course gives a presentation about the practical application of the probability theory and mathematical statistics and the solution of some of the experimental data analysis problems appearing in everyday laboratory work. Parameter estimation; maximum likelihood method, fundamentals of least square method. Biased and unbiased estimation, distortion. The error of estimated parameters, estimation of covariance matrix. Statistical tests for searching spilling points, the error of first and second kind. Statistical tests for determining the goodness of fitting: the point rejection method, error of first and second kind. Examples of evaluation of certain measurements. RFIT program and its application.

Processing of experimental data II.
Credits: 2
Course director: Dr. Zoltán Szatmáry
Abstract:
This course is a presentation of practical applications of the previously studied mathematical statistical knowledge and in part a practical supplement of it. The subject is open in a sense that topics suggested by students are analysed too. Fixed topics:  Fundamental concepts (date types, scales, experimental data model, measurement error, time rows, stochastic processes). Preprocessing (sampling, interpolation, filtering). Types and planing of convolutional filters, (Frequency filters, DFT, Wiener filters, prediction and deconvolution). Recursive filters (z- transformed, Kalman-filter, ARMAX-model). Analysis of multi-valued functions (Main component analysis, factor analysis, discrimant analysis). Cluster analysis. Practical fitting problems. Robust estimation (fitting based on the most frequent value).

Thermal theory
Credits: 5
Course director: Dr. Tamás Jászay
Abstract:
Short summary of the concepts and fundamental laws of thermodynamics. Thermal and calorimetric state of equation. State transition and state diagram of real gases (vapours). Basic types of cycles (work, cooler, heat pump and coupled one). Substituting cycles of machines working with gas medium. Analysis of their efficiency. Steam cycles and possibilities of increasing their efficiency. Properties of steam cycles in nuclear power plants. Entropy analysis of the transition of state and cycles. Thermodynamic bases of climate technology. Fundamental forms of heat propagation: conduction, convection, radiation. Steady and time-dependent heat conduction in simple bodies, special emphasize is put on the case of internal heated source. Heat transmission in two-phase flow (boiling, condensation). Heat transmission. Sizing of heat transmission instruments. Efficiency of heat transmitter. Simple examples of heat radiation. Radiation of gases. The basic cases of parallel mass and heat transport.
 
Fluid mechanics
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. József Rohács
Abstract:
Summary of theorems of hydro- and thermodynamics which are necessary for dealing with fluid machines. Operation and classification of fluid machines. The operation and fundamental equations of centrifugal fluid machines. Centrifugal compressors, ventilators and rotary pumps. Basic operation of axial compressors and ventilators. Determination of pressure and temperature which are appearing in stages, increased, losses, efficiency. Connecting the stages to each other. Operation of rotary pumps, their velocity triangles. Running of axial turbines, triangles, losses, power. Calculation of the stages of turbines. Steam and gas based turbines. Running of axial hydro-electric generators, their working properties. Velocities, triangles, operation, application of centrifugal gas-functioned turbines. Operation of water turbines, character graph. Some elementary measuring technics of fluid-flow machines (velocity, pressure, volume, temperature, etc.)

Thermo- and hydrodynamic laboratory
Credits: 4
Course director: Lajos Kisdeák
Abstract:
Thermo-technical measurements: measuring the temperature of flowing gases, experimental recording of tension graph of the water vapour, studying the transition of state, experimental determination of the kappa exponent for air, examination of the heat radiation of a plain flat, measuring free convection around a horizontal tube. Fliud-flow technical measurements: tools for determining pressure and volume, experimental recording of the pipe friction factor, studying the straight stream-guider lattice, measuring lifting and resistivity force on a body placed in stream. Investigation of thermo- and fluid-flow technical machines: measuring the properties of freezers, examination of water beam pump, measuring centrifugal rotary pump and ventilator, compressor, recording of the characterism of centrifugal compressors, investigating the launching and operational properties of gas turbine, recording of external characterism of internal combustion engines. Pressure indication in the cylinder space.

Material science and technology
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. István Artinger
Abstract:
Concept of material technology, classification of technologies. Classification of materials, their properties. The basis of mechanical material research. Methods and index numbers. Lattice structure of metals and alloys. Its equilibrium state. State graphs. The real structure of metals. Lattice impurities and their influence. The mechanism of plastic deformation. Phase transitions. Diffusion transition. Transition of Martin-steel kind. Secessional stiffing. Effect of radiation. Renewal, recrystalisation. The phenomena and research methods of fracture, failing, creeping, flow. The fundamental concepts of electro-chemical corrosion, the most important research methods. Methods of producing materials and the influence of the technology on the properties. Structural and tools materials and factors determining their properties. Special materials. The structural materials of nuclear technics. The effect of the cast structures and pollution. Cast alloys. Fe-based light and non-ferrous metal alloys. Weldable steels and alloys. Methods of welding. Formable steels, aluminium alloys and non-ferrous metals. Plastic deformation technologies. Surface treatment methods. Future structural materials.

Machine elements, CAD, CAM
Credits: 5
Course director: Dr. Sándor Tóth
Abstract:
General questions about the constructional design (concept, requirement note, looking for solution sketches and evaluation, licensing of design, patenting, documentation, controlling v. operation, destruction, recycling). Basic problems in machine constructing, the used geometrical, functional and calculation methods, materials, material laws,  checking of functional conditions, reaching of sufficient lifetime, economical production and operation. Bindings working with force, form and material (screw binding, moment binding, welded bindings). Springs, system of springs. Pressurized vessels and mountings. The fundamental task of sizing in the framework of the theory of strength of materials (static and dynamic strain, stability questions, thermal strain, special material laws, creeping and tiring, failure phenomenon). Elements of bending systems (bearings, shafts, clutches, power transport by force and form). During the evolving of topics there will be introduced both the simple models for calculation and the more accurate computerized methods, the possibilities of applying CAD at the stage of making the documentation (drawing in 2 dimension, body modelling, computerized analysis, simulation of movement). CAM principal concepts.

Engineering mechanics
Credits: 5
Course director: Dr. Bela Sályi
Abstract:
Kinematics and kinetics. The zero, first, and second order inertia moment. Equation of motion, trajectory. The velocity, the state of velocity for a rigid body, finite and infinitesimal type of movement. The acceleration, the state of acceleration for a rigid body. The concept of mass point. The projection of moving, circular moving and harmonic oscillation. Moving with constant acceleration. The degrees of freedom for moving,  determining the equation of motion. The properties of moving taking into account the co-ordinate systems (relative movement). Newton equations, the role of mass. Lagrange type equation of motion (for systems with one and n degrees of freedom) a) first kind b) second kind. The system of theorems of kinetics: momentum theorem, angular momentum theorem, power, kinetic energy, work and work theorem. Collisions: central and excentral, collision of rigid body rotating at a fixed axis. The theory of oscillations as a part of the kinetics. The statics as a limit of kinetics. The science of the strength of materials (statics of elastic bodies). Its task and topic. The concept of strain, strains of rods (straight and curved). The strained states of straight rods: a) tension (pressure) b) bending c) torsion d) shearing. Differential equation for an elastic fibre. Complex strain. Work of  the deformation. Bending of in-plane-curved rods. State of stress and deformation. Strength type of sizing. Uncertain structures.

Control engineering
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. Béla Szilágyi
Abstract:
Concepts, conditioning and controlling. Mathematical description of dynamical system. The differential equation and its methods for solving. Space of states, phase space. Equilibrium position of controlling. Stability. System typical functions. Design methods of continual and discrete system. Serial compensation, state feedback, noise compensation, cascade controlling.

Nuclear electronics
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. Barna Szepessy
Abstract:
Fundamentals of the nuclear electronics, pre-amplifiers from the conventional resistive-feedback to the modern optical-feedback ones. Spectroscopic amplifiers their types and elements: CR-RC-RC delay-liner, (unipolar, bipolar) gated integrator etc. Signal forming methods, types which are the most suitable for application, aspects of adjusting their parameters. Timing contra Pulse Height Analysis (fast-slow system selection). Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD). Linear gates. Pile-up-rejector (PUR). Baseline-Restorer (BLR). Loss-free counting system (LFC). Counting losses (Classical Pulse Generator Method CPGM; Virtual Pulse Generator Methode (VPGM)). Wilkinson-type and Successive approximation ADC-s. Linearity errors. Reliability questions. Statistical problems of data evaulation. Analysis and comparison of the above mentioned circuits for the purpose of an economical measurement design. Multichanel analisers (MCA). Noise-resolution (electronics- noise-reduction)

Fundamentals of reactor physics and technics
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. Gyula Csom
Abstract:
Nuclear physical background of reactors (short summary). Basics of neutron physics, neutron gas properties, diffusion theory. Theoretical basis of neutron moderation, moderator properties. Reactor statics: multiplication factor and its elements. The reactor physical conditions of reactor safety. Reactor kinetics, reactor controlling. Fuel burn-out: change in the composition of radioactive fuel, poisoning, determination of burn-out level. Thermo-technics of reactors: power flux distribution, axial and radial distribution of temperature, thermal limits. Reactor build-up. Fundamentals of the engineering radiation protection.

Reactor controlling and set-up
Credits: 3
Course director: Dr. Ernô Petz
Abstract:
The controlling properties of reactor. Measured parameters of reactors. Chain measuring devices for neutrons. Chain measurement systems for determining technological parameters. Controlling poles, interlopers, location indicators. Operator helping computerized information system. Reactor controlling. Safe-guarding systems. Analysis of safe-guarding systems.

Nuclear safety
Credits: 3
Course director: Dr. Ferenc Lévay
Abstract:
The definition, fundamental questions and handling of nuclear safety. Criticality safety. Physical basis of reactor safety. Principles of safety sizing. Reactivity malfunctions. Theoretical basis of confidence. Deterministic probability safety analysis. Results of risk studies. Safe-guarding systems. Review of defence systems. The safety report. Peaceful and military utilization. The ``Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty'' and its role.

Theory of operation of nuclear reactors I.
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. Gyula Csom
Abstract:
Distribution of power density in the active zone, its inequality factors and temperature limits. Moderation, reactivity factors, reactor physical fundamentals of nuclear safety. Reactivity controlling and compensation. Xenon poisoning and its influence on reactor operation. Self-controlling properties of nuclear reactors. Changing of radioactive composition during the burning cycle. Problems at the end of the cycle, cycle extending. Possibilities of failure of radioactive fuel units and their consequences in the operation. Technological an operational questions about the reactor vessel check. The manoeuvring abilities of reactors, the conditions and possibilities for the changing loaded power operation. Extending the lifetime of energetic reactors. The nuclear reactor as a radiation source. The activation of the water in the prime circle, the pollution of apparatus in the prime circle and its effect on reactor operation. Physical launch. Refuelling. Checking and temporary storage of new and burnt fuel units. Reactor checking during operation, noise diagnose. Special questions about the maintenance of nuclear reactors. Malfunctions and types of accidents in nuclear reactors. Students should take part in laboratory practice on prime circle simulators (3-4 laboratory measurement).

Nuclear energy systems
Credits: 3
Course director: Dr. Gyula Csom
Abstract:
Uranium and thorium resources. Uranium ore mining, processing and enrichment. Uranium conversation. Uranium enrichment, technologies of enrichment. Fuel unit production based on uranium and MOX, typicals of fuel units. Nuclear reactors, types of nuclear reactors, nuclear energy systems, temporary and final storage of burnt fuel, ways of storage. Reprocessing of fuel units and recicrulation of  useful materials. Classification of radioactive waste and their, preparation, storage and final bury. Environmental effect of the different parts of nuclear energy system. International and domestic regularization and checking (safeguards). Economical questions about the usage of nuclear energy.

Diagnosis of technical systems
Credits: 3
Course director: Dr. Gábor Pór
Abstract:
Introduction to the diagnostically systems: method based on regular checking of measured parameters, fluctuation diagnostic bases (spectrum, auto-regression procedures): trends and trend monitoring methods, professional systems, neuron networks, fundamentals of system with artificial intelligence. Automated diagnostically systems: noise diagnostically systems in reactors (system based on neutron noise), checking system for the origin and spreading of defects in devices working under pressure, system detecting and localizing loose parts, diagnostically systems for vibration, leakage detecting system, system for the determination of remaining lifetime, diagnostically systems (procedure) determining the system parameters, remote monitoring systems, system measuring  and registration the changing of material properties.

Theory of operation of nuclear power plants
Credits: 6
Course director: Dr. Gyula Csom
Abstract:
Two third of the topic in this course is equivalent with the ``Theory of operation of nuclear reactors'' course. The remaining one third part includes the following topics: The place of the nuclear power plants in the electrical energy system. The consequences of economical load distribution in the operation of nuclear plants. The operational specialities of steam generator. The operational specialities of the saturated steam turbine. The usual operational situations of a nuclear plant (launching, stopping, power modification, steady running). Malfunctions and accidents in nuclear plants. Economical calculation. The organization of plant controlling. Laboratory practice with part and nuclear plant simulators and in the training simulator at the nuclear power plant at Paks.

Method of nuclear measurement
Credits: 5
Course director: Dr. Dénes Bódizs
Abstract:
Interaction of radioactive radiation with matter. Types of detectors, signal process and evaluation electronics, measuring gamma and neutron radiation, XRF, Mössbauer spectroscopy, method of measurement for low and high intensity of radiation, absolute activity measurement, errors in measurement, practical application of different types of methods of measurement. Laboratory practice: gas filled detectors, gamma spectroscopy with scintillation and semiconductor detectors, XRF, Mössbauer spectroscopy and coincidence techniques.

Applications of radioactive radiation
Credits: 3
Course director: Dr. Nóra Vajda
Abstract:
Radioisotopes, producing signed compounds. Application of radioactive isotopes in the research of chemical mechanism and biochemistry (RIA). Medical applications of radiation and isotopes (diagnosis and therapy).

Nuclear material testing
Credits: 5
Course director: Dr. Ferenc Lévay
Abstract:
Radiation and matter interaction, information content of radiation image. Transmission methods. Scanning methods. Computerized tomophotography. Emission methods. Fundamentals of testing nuclear materials. Measuring problems with the safe-guard method. Method of measurement for radiated fuel. Usage of excited nuclear reactions for material research. Practical questions about the industrial material testing and its developing trends.

Radioanalytics
Credits: 6
Course director: Dr. Nóra Vajda
Abstract:
Isotopes in the nature with natural and artificial origin, nucleogensis, the steps of the radiochemical analysis (exploration, chemical separation, preparation of radioactive sources), the analysis of important radioisotopes. Nuclear methods in element-analytics (activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis). Nuclear methods in structure research.

Radiation effect chemistry
Credits: 3
Course director Dr. Földiák Gábor
Abstract:
The temporary and permanent effect of radiation on physical properties and its practical utilization (e.g. modifying the conductivity of gases and solids, improvement of quality in semiconductors, producing light and electric energy). Radiation effect chemical reactions of water and liquid media. The role of physical parameters and pollution. Radiochemical decay of organic compounds. Radioactive technologies especially in the plastic industry (producing shrinking polymers, improvement of heat resistivity, surface treatment technologies). Radiation resistivity of structured materials. Radio-biological technologies
in agriculture, food and pharmaceutical industry (medical instruments) and in production (sterilization). Radiation technological tools (gamma radiators and electron accelerators) and technological dosimeters. The course includes laboratory work with gamma radiators and electron accelerators at the Hungarian Academy of Science Isotope Research Institute.

Radiation protection II.
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. Péter Zagyvay
Abstract:
Dose concepts and units. The damaging impact of ionization radiation in living organisms. Activities of native and international radiation protection organizations and authorities. The current regulating system of radiation protection. Occurrence and propagation of radioactive materials in the environmental. The mechanism of incorporation. External and internal radiation burden. Individual and collective doses at dangerous workplaces. Natural and artificial burden for inhabitants. Protection against external radiation and radioactive pollution. Sizing of shielding walls. Decontamination technologies. Personal and local dosage measurement of external radiation burden. Measuring the inner burden. Measuring the environmental burden. Measuring the radioactive pollution of air, water and soil. Quality assurance conditions about the measurement apparatus of the radiation protection.

Radioactive waste
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. Péter Zagyvay
Abstract:
Concepts of radiation protection in connection with radioactive waste. Groups of wastes. Characterization of wastes. Official provisions. Origin of waste, its entry into nature and their environmental influence. Environmental checking methods of nuclear waste. Storing and transporting radioactive waste. Building and running nuclear stores. The physical and chemical technologies of handling nuclear and radioactive waste. Radiation protection provisions connected with waste handling. The role of natural analoges in the planing of waste storage. Checking and analytical methods. Sampling methods. Specialities and sensitivity of the measurement apparatus. Quality assurance in handling, storage and characterization of nuclear waste.

Environmental influence of nuclear power plants
Credits: 3
Course director: Dr. Péter Zagyvay
Abstract:
The purpose of the environmental protection, basic concepts, main areas and methods. The effect of energetic on air environmental. The originating process of air polluting materials: emission coming from natural and human activity, origin of pollutants in burning (sulphur- and nitrogen-dioxide, flying ashes, etc.), methods for decreasing emission. The spreading of pollutants: meteorological factor effecting on the propagation and dilution, (wind-field, stability of atmosphere, precipitation) the idea and the calculation methods of the additional chimney height, the fundamental model and its completion for spreading (reflection, deposition, outwash, transition). Evaluation of methods for air pollution: content diagrams, effect estimation, chimney sizing, economical evaluation. Grouping of environmental risk, the objective and subjective factors of its judgement.
 
Pollution propagation in the environmental
Credits: 3
Course director: Dr. Péter Zagyvai
Abstract:
Types of models describing gases and aerosols moving in the atmosphere. Meteorological factors having influence on the propagation. Application of models. Planing and implementation of monitoring measurements,  validation of models. Specialities of the radioactive air pollution. The measurement of the radioactive air pollution. Spreading of inactive and radioactive pollution in steady and moving surface water, ground water and soil. Basic hydrological ideas connected with the stream of ground water and surface water. The applied measuring and calculation method for the validation of the propagation model. Entry of the radioactive pollutants in living organism. Metabolic model of incorporation and exhaustion. The normal and accidental radioactive emission of nuclear plants. Role of the models in the planing and practise of guarding. Environmental monitoring systems, remote measurement networks.

Modern nuclear methods 
Credits: 3
Course director: Dr Csaba Sükösd
Abstract:
Radiation sources (accelerators, reactors). Steady and impulse operation. The characterization of available beams. Special radiation beams (synchrotron radiation, cold neutrons, spallation neutron sources). Modern detecting technics, special detectors. New directions and methods in nuclear electronics (multi-parametric event detecting,  on-line pre-processing). Special questions about data processing (event reconstruction, hypothesis analysis, deconvolution).  Current questions about the nuclear reactors. Nuclear accidents. Waste storage and placement. Up-to-date questions about the nuclear environmental protection. Propagation models, environmental monitoring. Noise as an information medium. Noise diagnosis. (audio, thermal and neutron noise). Nuclear imaging (radiography, transmission and emission type of tomography).

Nuclear technology laboratory I.
Credits: 6
Course director: Dr. Éva Zsolnay
Abstract:
One term of laboratory practice consists 12 measurements, chosen from the following topics regarding the students' submodules.

Nuclear technology laboratory II.

Credits: 10
Course director: Dr. Éva Zsolnay
Abstract:
Another term of laboratory practice consists 12 measurements, chosen from the above topics regarding the students' submodules.

Nuclear technology seminars I.-IV.
Credits: 4 X 2
Course director: Dr. Csaba Sükösd
Abstract:
In each term students get one or two topics for individual work and presentation. The difficulties of subjects are steadily increasing. In the first two terms the aim is to increase the lecturing skills, on the other hand in the last two occasions the stress is put on the professional content. During the four terms students are challenged by various kinds of lecturing situation including the usage of blackboard/transparents and lecturing in small/big audience hall.