MATERIALS SCIENCE MODULE

Module program director:   Prof. József Gyulai, member of HAS,
                                                      Prof. Péter Deák



 
  1. Crystalline and amorphous materials I.
  2. Crystalline and amorphous materials II.
  3. Analysing methods in material science I.
  4. Analysing methods in material science II.
  5. Metallic physics
  6. Physical metallurgy
  7. Damage analysis
  8. The physical basis of sintering
  9. Physics of semiconductors
  10. Semiconductor technology
  11. Quantummechanical modelling of defect complexes
  12. Physics of solid dielectrics
  13. Non-conventional materials I.
  14. Non-conventional materials II.
  15. Biophysics
  16. Organic and biological material science
  17. Lectures on biophysics
  18. Introduction to medical methods of measurement
  19. Light emission, light sources, light producing tools
  20. The fundaments of surface physics
  21. Experimental layer- and surface physics
  22. Film technologies
  23. Particle-solids interaction I.
  24. Particle-solids interaction II.
  25. Computer surface physics I.
  26. Computer surface physics II.
  27. Chemical thermodynamics
  28. Irreversible thermodynamics
  29. Physical chemistry of surfaces I.
  30. Physical chemistry of surfaces II.
  31. Applied electrochemistry
  32. Diffusion in solids
  33. Material technological simulations
  34. Electronmicroscopy
  35. Analytical electronmicroscopy
 


Crystalline and amorphous materials I.
Credits: 2
Course director: Dr. László Vannay 
Abstract:
Technical application of crystals. Crystal growing methods. Processing and qualification of crystals. Theory of crystal growth.
Symmetries of crystals. Structure and properties of crystals important in practice.
 
Crystalline and amorphous materials II.
Credits: 2
Course director: Dr. Péter Deák
Abstract:
Crystal defects; their effect on physical properties and their application in the modification of properties. Production of amorphous materials, characterization of their structure. The analysing methods and the most important properties of amorphous materials. Stability problems. Modelling the structure. Glass metals and amorphous semiconductors.
 
Analysing methods in material science I.
Credits: 11
Course director: Dr. Péter Deák
Abstract:
Concept and realization of established measurement methods in the structural, compositional and electron structural analysis of materials. Evaluation, interpretation and application of measurement results  with aid of course of 3 hours lectures and 6 hours laboratory practice weekly.
 
Analysing methods in material science II.
Credits: 11
Course director: Dr. Péter Deák
Abstract:
Exposition of concept and realization of usual measurement methods of the structural, compositional and electron structural analysis of materials, and the exposition of evaluation, interpretation and application of measurement results  with aid of course of 3 hours lectures and 6 hours laboratory practice weekly.
 
Metallic physics
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. Péter Deák
Abstract:
Structure of metals; periodic table; electron states in metals, determination methods of electron energies; theory of metallic bond, cohesion of metals; density of states, Fermi surface, measuring methods of the Fermi-surface; calculation of dielectric constant, Kohn-anomalies of phonon spectra, Friedel oscillations; optical properties of metals; thermal and transport properties of metals (electric resistance, specific heat, etc.); magnetic properties of metals (Pauli paramagnetism, itinerant magnetism of the iron group, Stoner-model, magnetism of rare earth metals); superconductivity.
 
Physical metallurgy
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. Péter Deák
Abstract:
The theoretical basis of the use and processing of metals and alloys. Analysis of the structure, thermodynamic equilibrium, and disequilibrium states of metals and alloys. Study of processes induced by energy (shaping and heat) in metals and in alloys .

Damage analysis
Credits: 2
Course director: Dr. Péter Deák
Abstract:
Problems in industrial applications caused by creeping, mechanical- or thermal fatigue, and other related processes. Determination of expected life span and applicable regenerating methods. Damage processes of metallic materials, and their consequence on the structure and properties. Utilization of alloys applied in reactors, pressurized vessels, furnaces, and chemical equipments, effects of operational conditions on the damage processes.
 
The physical basis of sintering
Credits: 2
Course director: Dr. Péter Deák
Abstract:
The physical basis of the required textile structures in ceramic procedures and powder metallurgy. Content: the structure and cold working of powders. Pressureless solid- and fluid phase sintering. Fluid state sintering with increased pressure and isostatic hot pressing. Granule- and pore roughening in the course of sintering, formation of sintered materials.

Physics of semiconductors
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. Péter Deák
Abstract:
The theory and experimental study of band structure and transport properties. Theoretical and experimental study of pollutants and mass defects in semiconductors. The p-n transition and the range of space charge.
The physical basis of semiconductors (transistor effect, application of Schottky-diods, bipolar and MOS transistors). New semiconductor phenomena (high field instabilities, meta- and bistability, quantum Hall phenomenon, mesoscopic phenomena, resonant tunnel phenomenon, physical properties of quantum fibres and quantum points.) New semiconductor devices (CCD devices, active microwave devices, LED, semiconductor laser, electro-luminescent panel, solar cells, devices utilizing two dimensional electron gas.)

Semiconductor technology
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. János Mizsei
Abstract:
The purpose of the course is to introduce the most important technologies in semiconductor industry, and their application in microelectronic and in material formation processes. The course consists of lecture, and laboratory practices. Semiconductor technology operations: production of one crystal slice; growing of insulator-, protecting-, and passivator layers; doping; litography; single- and multilayer metallization; mounting, canning. Basic technologies in the production of integrated circuits. The effect of material structure and composition on the electrical parameters (including the error parameters). Application
examples in the area of metal industry, chemical industry, environment protection, etc.

Quantummechanical modelling of defect complexes
Credits: 2
Course director: Dr. Péter Deák
Abstract:
The identification of point defect complexes in semiconductors and in dielectrics is only possible with a comparison of the measured and the calculated properties. The purpose of the course is to give an introduction to the computerized approximation methods applicable for the quantummechanical calculation of the properties of defect complexes. Modelling of solids with defects: embedding and super-cell models. Approximations for the solution of the Schrödinger equation of the model: local density functional method on plane wave and localized base, ab inito and semi-empirical Hartree-Fock methods. Applications: pollutant complexes in elementary and III-V semiconductors, and on semiconductor oxides and surfaces.

Physics of solid dielectrics
Credits:
Course director: Dr. András Tóth
Abstract:
Basic phenomena in dielectrics, classification of dielectrics, macroscopic description and mechanism of polarization; polarization in non-central-symmetrical materials (pieso-, piro-, and ferro-electricity); electrical conduction and dielectric loss; dispersion of dielectric constant (permittivity); non-linear phenomena in dielectrics; phase transitions in dielectrics; dielectric devices.

Non-conventional materials I.
Credits: 2
Course director: Dr. Péter Deák
Abstract:
Applications, properties and behaviour of special materials (ceramics, composite materials) of great importance in practical applications. Production technology of ceramics (powder production, powder shaping, sintering). The mechanisms of fluid state sintering. The mechanisms of the solid state sintering. Plastic ceramics, mechanism of high temperature plasticity, size effects. Mechanism of hot isostatic pressing. Kinds of breaking: rigorous breaking, tough breaking. Nucleation of ruptures. Nucleation of cavities. Propagation of ruptures. Thermal tensions, heat shock. The concept and classification of composites. Composites of metal- and ceramic matrices. The production and the characterization of the properties of granular composites. Application examples:  hard metals and cermets. Fibrous composites. The production of amplifying fibres and acicular crystals. Conduction (boundary surface) of matrix and amplifying fibres. Increasing of the toughness of ceramics with amplifying fibres.

Non-conventional materials II.
Credits: 2
Course director: Dr. Péter Deák
Abstract:
Applications, properties and behaviour of special materials (polymers, liquid crystals) of great importance in practical applications. Liquid crystals: mesogenous and mesomorphous behaviour, classification of phases, description of phase transitions; long and short range order, order parameter, free energy; the effect of external fields, static deformations, role of boundary surfaces; anisotrop hydrodynamics, viscosity anisotropy; optics (double refraction, optical activity, selective reflection), piro-, flexo-, and ferro-electricity; technical applications, displays. Polymers: polymers as engineering, structural materials. Binding energies in the
polymer chain. Build-up of polymers. The physical and technological fundamentals of polymer production technology. The structure of polymers. Amorphous and crystalline polymers. Linear branching and mesh structure. State of matter, phase state, physical state. Connection of the structure with the processing technology. Dynamical mechanical analysis. Typical preparation technologies of polymers softening by heat. Extrusion, die casting, calanderization, pressing, bowling. Build-up and solidity of polymer composites. Typical processing technologies of polymer composites.

Biophysics
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. Gyulai József
Abstract:
Characterization of biopolymers. Aqueous solutions. Interactions at the molecular level, secondary bonds. The flexibility, stability and structure of proteins. Protein as a special state of matter. Nucleic acids, kipoproteins, glicoproteins. Phase transitions in biopolymers. Statistical considerations. The role of information in the organization of biological structures, the molecular mechanism of information transmission. Complex macromolecular systems (connective tissue, muscle, membranes, cells). Contractile systems, motion. The molecular mechanism of muscle function, energy transformation. Biological motors; the structure, organization and motion of flagellum and cilia. Practice: study of phase transition of biopolymers with adiabatic, scanning microcalorymeter. Analysis of the form, size and interactions of macromolecules with hydrodynamic methods. Biological application of spectroscopy (U.V., I.P., C.D., fluorescence).

Organic and biological material science
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. Gyulai József
Abstract:
The theory and the basics of X-ray diffractional crystallographic methods. Experimental methods: preparation and crystal growing of organic molecules, film methods and diffractometry. Crystallographic computations, basic and advanced methods from data reduction to total determination of structure. Molecule modelling, utilization of data bank. Analysis of results: intra- and intermolecular geometry, data bank analysis, modelling, reliability of structural models.

Lectures on biophysics
Credits: 2
Course director: Dr. Alfréd Zawadowski
Abstract:
The origin of life. The nature of the living matter. Energy transformation in the living world. The role of electricity. Photosynthesis. Ion pumps.

Introduction to medical methods of measurement
Credits: 2
Course director: Dr. Gyulai József
Abstract:
Measurement of biophysical signals: measurement of bioelectric phenomena. ECG and EEG measurement. Blood circulation measurements in artery, vein. Blood circulation measurement in organs and tissues. Fick's law and its applications. Blood pressure measurements. Volume and circulation measurements of respiratory systems. Study of the visual and the hearing system. Medical projection processes, ultra sound projection. Projection based on reflection. Study of factors determining the resolution. The physical basis of radiological projection. Methods of image recording and display. Methods of nuclear medicine. Scanned detectors, Gamma cameras, Auger cameras. Study of factors determining the resolution. Production of segmentational images (CT). The basics of image reconstruction, iterated processes, 2D Fourier transformation, the back-projection principle. Analysis of brain and heart function by body surface mapping of electrical fields.
 
Light emission, light sources, light producing tools
Credits: 2
Course director: Dr. Péter Deák
Abstract:
A complex physical and physiochemical approach to the processes occuring in light sources (theoretical and practical aspects). General characterization of light sources, light emission phenomena of processes occuring in light sources, light emitting materials, materials used in light sources, basic concepts of optics and chromatics, light and colour measurement, vacuum-physical processes in light sources, surface phenomena in light sources, modern light sources.
 
The fundaments of surface physics
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. Péter Deák
Abstract:
This course gives an introduction to the course group: "film and surface physics", providing the basic knowledge that is beyond the scope of bulk solid state physic. The description of the structure, lattice vibration, and electron structure of the surface will be discussed in detail. The course deals with the surface charge layers and with the escape work, with semiconductor/semiconductor, semiconductor/metal and semiconductor/insulator boundary surfaces, with adhesion on various boundary surfaces, and with the physical description of absorption phenomena and surface reactions.

Experimental layer- and surface physics
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. Gyulai József
Abstract:
The course deals with the structure, electron structure, transport-, magnetic-, optical- and mechanical properties of film. The studied systems are:
- vapour phase, solid phase formation of films (growth from layer to layer)
    insular growth, Stranski-Krastanov growth.
- disconnected, insular layers.
- layers of atomic dimensions.
- molecular beam epitaxy (multi-layers)
- film metallurgy (phases, diffusion)
- artificial systems and their properties (semiconductor super-lattices, metal super-lattices, amorphous super-lattices,
   quantum cables, quantum points, quantum clusters, metastable systems).

Film technologies
Credits: 7
Course director: Dr. Péter Deák
Abstract:
The concept of layers and its mechanical (adhesion, internal stress, elasticity coefficient, tensile stress, micro hardness, etc.), electrical (dielectric strength, resistivity, dielectric constant, etc.), optical (reflection coefficient, etc.), stochiometrical and morphological properties. Classification of layers (thin/thick/multi-layer, insulator/semiconductor/metal-layer, amorphous/polycrystallic/epitaxial), and their most common applications.
Production methods of films: interactions with substrates (thermal and anodic oxidation, formation of silicides),
substrate independent chemical (CVD, LPCVD, PECVD, epitaxy) and physical (resistance heating and electron-beam vacuum evaporation, atomization, molecular beam epitaxy) vapour phase separation, fluid phase separation (spray, centrifuge) and surface treatment (layer compacting, recrystallization with laser, ion-mixing, etc.). Layer qualifying methods: thickness measurement (with vibrating quartz during separation, with interferometry or ellipsometry in case of light transmitting layer, in electric conducting layers with eddy-current measurement and with stepping talystep, talysurf, interference microscope, and layer boundary measurement developed on skew and spherical grindings), layer resistance measurement (4 point measurement, measurement of the resistance of propagation), conductivity type measurement (hot needle measurement), measurement of mechanical parameters (adhesion, internal stress, etc.).

Particle-solids interaction I.
Credits: 3
Course director: Dr. János László
Abstract:
Tunnelling microscopy, atomic strength microscopy, applications. Atom scattering. Adsorption, desorption, applications. Electron and atomic deceleration in solids.
 
Particle-solids interaction II.
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. János László
Abstract:
Transport theory. Ion evaporation and its applications. Ion implantation, ionic technologies. Monte-Carlo and moleculardynamic simulations.

Computer surface physics I.
Credits: 3
Course director: Dr. János László
Abstract:
The purpose of the course is to acquire proficiency in simulation methods related to surface physics
and the individual use of these methods, problem solution. The topics include the two-body interaction model, the classical dynamic model, interaction potentials, inelastic energy losses, thermal motion and special energies.
 
Computer surface physics II.
Credits: 3
Course director: Dr. János László
Abstract:
Practical applications of the first semester studies in model formation. Analysis of simulated trajectories, penetration depth, back scattering, evaporation and radiation damages in comparison with measured results.
 
Chemical thermodynamics
Credits: 4
Course director: Dr. József  Verhás
Abstract:
This course introduces the students to the methods of chemical thermodynamics and its basic concepts: thermodynamic variables; the principle of energy conservation; the principle of entropy growth; affinity; chemical potential; ideal systems; Nernst's heat theorem; ideal and real gases; condensed matters; phase equilibria; chemical equilibria; the basics of reaction kinetics;
boundary surface equilibria; thermodynamic stability; mixtures; ideal, regular and associated mixtures; electrolytes; azeotrophs.
 
Irreversible thermodynamics
Credits: 3
Course director: Dr. József  Verhás
Abstract:
The basic concepts of thermodynamics, temperature, the relation of work and heat, the first law of thermodynamics: efficiency of heat motors; second law of thermodynamics; entropy, maximum of recoverable work, energy, free energy, potentials; entropy balance; entropy current, entropy production; irreversibility, equilibrium conditions, dynamic laws, reciprocity relations, symmetries; thermoelectricity, transport processes, systems far from equilibrium, fast processes, dynamic degrees of freedom; the thermodynamic theory of dielectric polarization, the basics of thermodynamic reology; wave approximation of thermodynamics by Gyarmati and
thermodynamic theory of heat propagation through radiation; the extended thermodynamics and fluxes of higher order; special applications: electric motors, colloid particles, mechanical motion of charged particles, thermodynamic rephrasing of mechanical and electrodynamic laws; dissipative systems, stability, pattern formation.

Physical chemistry of surfaces I.
Credits: 2
Course director: Dr. János Giber
Abstract:
Characterization, phenomena, and processes of real metal, metal alloys, semiconductor metal-oxids, and ceramic surfaces; physicochemical sorption and desorption processes in different phases and gas mixtures; surface reactions; heterogeneous catalysis; effect of these processes on the escape work, the surface structure, the surface conductance, and the intrareflexive spectrum; surface segregation; practical applications: production of reproducable surfaces, sensors, catalysis, biotechnology, weldable and solderable surfaces; creation of favourable adhesive conditions.
 
Physical chemistry of surfaces II.
Credits: 2
Course director: Dr. János Giber
Abstract:
Characterization, phenomena, and processes of real metal, metal alloys, semiconducting metal-oxids, and ceramic surfaces; physicochemical sorption and desorption processes in different phases, and gas mixtures; surface reactions; heterogeneous catalysis; effect of these processes on the escape work, the surface structure, the surface conductance, and the intrareflexive spectrum; surface segregation;
practical applications: production of reproducable surfaces, sensors, catalysis, biotechnology, weldable and bearing soldering surfaces; creation of favourable adhesive conditions.
 
Applied electrochemistry
Credits: 2
Course director: Dr. Erika  Kálmán
Abstract:
The selection and the defence against corrosion of metallic structural materials. Heterogeneous electrochemical systems. Chemical thermodynamics and corrosion. The kinetics of corroding reactions. Passivity. The basic concept of inhibition. Corrosion analysing methods.

Diffusion in solids
Credits: 2
Course director:
Abstract:
The phenomenological description and the atomic theory of diffusion important in formation of structure and composition of solids and solid surfaces: Fick's laws, a microscopic approach to diffusion, interdiffusion, diffusion on surface and along grain boundary, diffusion profiles, measurement methods and experimental results.

Material technological simulations
Credits: 2
Course director: Dr. József  Gyulai
Abstract:
Description of the technological steps, modelling in semiconductors, metals, and organic materials; efficiency of first laws in technological simulations, numeric processes; connection and interaction of step series; semiconductor technological simulations and their relation to the other levels of the simulation; simulation possibilities of metal technologies; molecular engineering in organic and pharmaceutical chemistry.
 
Electronmicroscopy
Credits: 2
Course director: Dr. József  Gyulai
Abstract:
The role of microscopy, especially that of electronmicroscopy, in the analysis and modification of the physical properties and microprocesses of materials. Basic concepts in microscopy. Interactions of electron beams with materials. Types of electronmicroscopes, their construction, function and operation modes. Examples for the application of operation modes in modern material science: analysis and qualification of the formation mechanism of micro- and opto-electrical technological materials, study of their defect structures and damages.
 
Analytical electronmicroscopy
Credits: 2
Course director:  Dr. Péter  Deák
Abstract:
Analytical electronmicroscopy facilitates the local (composition-, structure, solid state environment, etc.) analysis of films. The discussed main themes do not overlap with the courses: "Transmissional electronmicroscopy" and "Scanning electronmicroscopy". Main topics: atomic number sensitive projection with atomic resolution, X-ray analysis (EDS), electron energy loss analysis (EELS) and convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED). The presentation of the methods is preceded by the discussion of electron scattering and is illustrated by numerous modern material science examples. The most recent top technologies and capacities of the devices available in Hungary will be compared in all fields.